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REFERENCES EXAMINING ASSAULTS BY WOMEN ON THEIR SPOUSES OR MALE PARTNERS: AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY Martin S. Used Conflict Tactics Scale and found twice as much wife-to-husband as husband-to-wife severe violence . Authors reports that they found "no significant difference between men and women in reporting inflicting or sustaining physical abuse." Specifically, within a one year period they found that 14% of the men and 18% of the women reported inflicting physical abuse, while 10% of the men and 14% of the women reported sustaining physical abuse.) Caetano, R., Schafter, J., Field, C., & Nelson, S. Agreement concerning intimate partner violence was about 40%, with no differences reported across ethnicities. Note this difference was nonsignificant.) Capaldi, D. Fiebert Department of Psychology California State University, Long Beach Last updated: June 2012SUMMARY: This bibliography examines 286 scholarly investigations: 221 empirical studies and 65 reviews and/or analyses, which demonstrate that women are as physically aggressive, or more aggressive, than men in their relationships with their spouses or male partners. Predictors of dating violence: A multi variate analysis. (Used CTS with 305 college students and found that 133 women and 43 men experienced violence in a current or recent dating relationship. The overall violence rate for husbands was 10.3% while the overall violence rate for wives was 13.2%. Women significantly reported perpetrating more partner violence than men in all three ethnic groups.) Callahan, M.

In terms of grades, 3.3% of 9th grade girls and 2.8% of 9th grade boys reported experiencing violence, while 5.5% of 12th grade girls and 2.3% of 12th grade boys reported experiencing violence. (A sample of actively dating college students responded to a survey examining courtship violence. Relationships between intimate partner violence and well-being. (Data consisted of 7,395 married and cohabiting heterosexual couples drawn from wave 1 of the National Survey of Families and Households . The GSS is based on a representative sample of 25,876 persons.

Authors report that there were no significant differences between the sexes in self reported perpetration of physical abuse.) Allen-Collinson, J. A marked man: Female perpetrated intimate partner abuse. (In Chapter 5 author presents data from an internet survey of 3600 divorced German fathers. In terms of measures: subjects were asked "how many arguments during the past year resulted in 'you hitting, shoving or throwing things at a partner.' They were also asked how many arguments ended with their partner, 'hitting, shoving or throwing things at you.'" Author reports that, "victimization rates are slightly higher among men than women .") Archer, J. Sex differences in aggression between heterosexual partners: A meta-analytic review. (Meta-analyses of sex differences in physical aggression indicate that women were more likely than men to use one or more acts of physical aggression and to use such acts more frequently. (In interviews with 1,200 randomly selected Canadians found that women both engaged in and initiated violence at higher rates than their male partners.) Bohannon, J. Overall in the 12-month period preceding the survey, an estimated 3% Canadian women and 2% of Canadian men reported experiencing violence from their partners. Violent Acts and injurious outcomes in married couples: Methodological issues in the National Survey of Families and Households. (Used the Conflict Tactics scale in a large national survey, n=5,474, and found that women engage in same amount of spousal violence as men.) Brutz, J., & Ingoldsby, B.

International Journal of Men's Health, 8, (1), 22-40. Article examines themes obtained from interviews and personal diary material.) Amendt, G. Results reveal that 1/3 of men reported episodes of physical violence during the divorce process and 2/3 of these were initiated by ex-partners.) Anderson, K. In terms of injuries, women were somewhat more likely to be injured, and analyses reveal that 62% of those injured were women.) Archer, J. Sex differences in physically aggressive acts between heterosexual partners: A meta-analytic review. (Analyzing responses to the Conflict Tactic Scale and using a data set somewhat different from the previous 2000 publication, the author reports that women are more likely than men to throw something at their partners, as well as slap, kick, bite, punch and hit with an object. During the 5 year period from 1995-1999, an estimated 8% of Canadian women and 7% of Canadian men reported violence from their partners. men who are involved in disputes with their partners, whether as alleged victims or as alleged offenders or both, are disadvantaged and treated less favorably than women by the law-enforcement system at almost every step.") Brush, L.

Men were more likely than women to strangle, choke, or beat up their partners.) Archer, J. Cross cultural differences in physical aggression between partners: A social-role analysis. Violent intimacy: The family as a model for love relationships. (Surveyed 461 college students, 168 men, 293 women, with regard to dating violence. Dating Violence at three time periods: 1976, 1992, 1996. (Data was collected from college students in 1986 . Courtship violence and the interactive status of the relationship. (Using CTS with 526 university students found Similar rates of mutual violence but with women reporting higher rates of violence initiation when partner had not--9% vs 3%.) Bland, R., & Orne, H. Reviewed police and legal responses to partner violence in Edmonton, Canada and concludes that ".

Personality & Social Psychology Review, 10, 133-153. Found that 15% of the men admitted to physically abusing their partners, while 21% of women admitted to physically abusing their partners.) Billingham, R. Subjects completed the CTS and results reveal a significant decrease in partner violence over a 10 year period.

(A review article which suggests that "women's empowerment is associated with lower victimization rates from their partners." Greater individualism and empowerment by women, however, are also associated with higher perpetration rates.) Archer, J., & Ray, N. Dating violence in the United Kingdom: a preliminary study. (Twenty three dating couples completed the Conflict Tactics scale. Do adolescents follow in their friends' or their parents' footsteps? (A modified version of Conflict Tactics Scale was administered on two occasions, 6 months apart, to 526 adolescents, on occasion two. Comparison of abuse by same and opposite-gender litigants as cited in requests for abuse prevention orders. (Author examined court documents in Massachusetts for the year 1997 and found that, "male and female defendants, who were the subject of a complaint in domestic relations cases, while sometimes exhibiting different aggressive tendencies, measured almost equally abusive in terms of the overall level of psychological and physical aggression.) Bernard, M. However, in terms of subjects' self reported violence and report of partner violence, women were consistently more aggressive than men.) Billingham, R. Results indicate that women were significantly more likely than their male partners to express physical violence. Prevalence and correlates of physical aggression during courtship. (Used Conflict Tactics Scale with a sample of 270 undergraduates and found 30% of men and 49% of women reported using some form of aggression in their dating histories with a greater percentage of women engaging in severe physical aggression.) Arias, I., & Johnson, P. Evaluations of physical aggression among intimate dyads. (Used Conflict Tactics Scale-CTS- with a sample of 103 male and 99 female undergraduates. In terms of victimization, 33% of girls, and 38% of boys reported being victims of partner aggression on occasion one and 47% of girls and 49% of boys reported victimization on occasion two. Authors also report that, "measures of partner agreement were high" and that the correlation between past and present violence was low.) Arias, I., Samios, M., & O'Leary, K. Both men and women had similar experience with dating violence, 19% of women and 18% of men admitted being physically aggressive. A significantly greater percentage of women thought self-defense was a legitimate reason for men to be aggressive, while a greater percentage of men thought slapping was a legitimate response for a man or woman if their partner was sexually unfaithful.) Arriaga, X. (Examined Interspousal violence in a representative sample of 562 couples in Calgary, Canada. Gender identity, self-esteem, and physical and sexual abuse in dating relationships. (A sample of 505 college students completed the CTS. Agreement on reports of intimate partner violence among white, Black, and Hispanic couples in the United States. (A probability sample of 1635 couples was interviewed and assessed with the CTS. In terms of injuries, 22% of girls and 17% of boys reported being injured by their dating partners. Findings reveal that 31% of men and 36% of women engaged "in an act of physical aggression against their current partner.") Capaldi, D. Adolescent dating violence victimization and psychological well-being. (Subjects were 190 high school students who completed a modified version of the CTS2. Observed and reported psychological and physical aggression in young, at-risk couples. (A sample of 118 young men and their dating partners were surveyed regarding their own physical aggression as well as that of their partners.

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